George F. Campbell
The neophyte shipmodeller`s jackstay
The UPPER YARDS about 1800 and earlier (topsail, topgallant, royal, etc.) were raised and lowered by means of halliards and rode on parrals which held them to the mast Fig. 56C. On large warships the topsail halliard was formed by large blocks called TYES attached each side of the mast head and leading down on deck. The yard would still hold up if one side was damaged. Fig. 56E.
The topgallant halliard was a thick rope from the center of the yard leading through a sheave in the masthead and then to the deck with a tackle. Fig. 56F. Fig. 56G is a simplified arrangement for lower yards on small ships with the slings, jeers, and halliards combined. A rope truss is fitted as before.
UPPER YARDS from about 185'0 onwards were raised and lowered by single halliards attached to an iron band at the center of the yard. Iron bands, incidentally, for attaching rigging were introduced early in the 19th century, although plain strengthening bands were in use before this. The topsail and topgallant HALLIARDS were chains shackled to the middle band and led through sheaves at the mast head just under the trestle trees, etc. The chains led down' behind the mast a short distance and then were attached to rope tackle leading to the waterways, alternating for each yard port or starboard. Fig. 58.
After the introduction of double topsails the halliards usually had an iron gin block on the end of the chain tye and the lower halliard was fixed on one side of the deck, led over the gin block and down to a purchase on the other side of the deck. The parrals were formed by wooden yokes in the aft side of the yard to which were fitted hinged iron half hoops. Large ships fitted leather lined iron tubs in halves and well greased, Fig. 57D.