George F. Campbell

The neophyte shipmodeller`s jackstay


LIFTS

— supported the ends of the yards to prevent them sagging under their own weight, Fig.58. The older type, 18th and early 19th century, were arrangements of blocks and tackle sometimes complicated but in the simplest form running from the yard arm to the mast cap and leading to a purchase hooked on the channels. After the introduction of double topsails, early 1850’s, the lifts were simplified into single ropes (later wire) which were hooked to the cap and spliced in an eye aver the yard arm. When the yard was hoisted with sail set (except the lower yards) the lifts would bang loosely in long loops but with the sail furled and yard lowered they would he taut. Note in Fig. 58 that when double topsails were fitted the lower topsail had no lifts but the yard arms were supported by downhauls from the upper topsail yard arms above. The downhauls also helped to haul down the upper topsail for furling.

FOOT ROPES

— hanging about 3 ft. below every yard, from each end to just beyond the middle and supported at intervals by stirrups. If the yards carried stunsail (studding sail) booms an additional short footrope called a FLEMISH HORSE was fitted at the extremities. This was because the ordinary tootropes did not quite reach the ends of the yards but anything from 12” to 36” away.

SHEETS

—which held the lower corners of the sail on the upper yards were ropes leading through sheaves set in the yard arms and led along underneath the yard to blocks hanging under the middle of the yard and thence down to the top. They took a great deal of strain and quickly wore thin, so that chains were used by the early 19th century. To prevent their hanging down too much under the yard they led through a fairlead on a yard band, about half way along each side of yard. Fig. 58. The lower topsail sheets leading underneath each lower yard went through two separate blocks on hands near the middle or else to a combined two-sheave block, the bullock block as on Fig. 57E which was the final arrangement. The sheets of the lower sails led through a large block attached directly to the corner of the sail and then to a lead block inside the bulwarks, or as in older ships, through a sheave in the bulwark itself.

BRACES

—attached to the same yard arm hand (if fitted) as the topping lift. The braces trimmed the yards to the wind. Those on the tore and main mast sails led aft in various ways and those on the mizzen mast led forward. Merchant ship braces saved rope by attaching the brace block to a long pendant on the yard arm hut naval craft attached the block direct to the yard arm, Fig. 68.

CLEW GARNETS

— so named on the lower sails and called CLEW LINES on the upper sails, were ropes leading from each lower corner of sail to blocks near the middle of the yard and down to the deck or top. The block was often on the same yard band as the sheet block. The purpose was to bring the sail up to the yard for furling. Additional lines serving the same purpose were leech lines and buntlines from the sides and bottom of the sail, leading through small blocks or rings lashed along the yard and then to more blocks underneath the forward rim of the top or the cross trees and then down to the pin rail.

LOWER TOPSAIL YARD CRANE.

This was a heavy iron swivel on the lower mast cap attached to a single yard band.Fig. 58. STUDDING SAIL GEAR. Studding sail booms ran through an iron band with a small roller connected to a bar fixed on the extremity of the yard. Another band with a hinged half on a bar was fixed to the yard about a third of the distance between yard arm and mast. The boom lay slightly forward of and above the yard. Fig. 57E.

The YARD BANDS carried eyes to which rigging lines were attached. They can be made from shim brass or copper about .010" thick (No. 30 gauge). This thickness can easily be worked with small tinsnips and round nose pliers. Eyes are produced by pinching the strip at necessary points using flat nose pliers, then soldering. Drill the hole in each tab and round with a file to form the eye. Fig. 60A.